Parrondo's paradox, a paradox in game theory, has been described as: A combination of losing strategies becomes a winning strategy. It is named after its creator, Juan Parrondo, who discovered the paradox in 1996. A more explanatory description is:There exist pairs of games, each with a higher probability of losing than winning, for which it is possible to construct a winning strategy by playing the games alternately.
The flashing Brownian ratchet and Parrondo's paradoxroyalsocietypublishing.org
(PDF) Parrondo's Paradoxical Games and the Discrete Brownian Ratchet | Derek Abbott - Academia.eduacademia.edu
[1410.0485] Brownian motion and gambling: from ratchets to paradoxical gamesarxiv.org
Parrondo’s Paradox: New results and new ideasarxiv.org